Famous names in surgery
When the first edition of Postgraduate orthopaedics was being written the original idea was to include a small section on famous names in surgery. The old style viva meant that old school type examiners could ask you about a famous name in orthopaedics/surgery during a viva question. A candidate would score brownie points if they knew something about that particular famous name.
Space constraints meant we had to drop this section.We asked a number of trainees if this idea should be resurrected for the second edition.The general consensus was not to include the section as it was not essential for the exam.Some candiates were a bit more forthright believing it to be outdated and not relevant.
With today’s rigid exam format it is unlikely an examiner will ask you about a famous name in orthopaedic surgery.However we found a home for this section on the additional material section of the website
Adamkiewicz, Albert [1850-1921]
Professor of Pathology at the University of Krawkow and later in Vienna.
Arterial supply of the spinal cord
Adams, William [1810-1900]
Eminent London orthopaedic surgeon of the mid-Victorian era.
His book, Club-Foot: it’s Causes, Pathology and Treatment, of 1866,received the Jacksonian Prize of the Royal College of Surgeons.
Albert, Eduard [1841-1900]
Albert was born in Bohemia and studied in Vienna. He is best known for producing “artificial ankyloses” in paralysed limbs and wrote a paper on this in 1881. Albert performed tarsal and shoulder arthrodesis for paralysis and recurrent dislocation, and was the first to use the term “arthrodesis”. Albert also described synovectomy, the transplantation of nerves, sciatic scoliosis and Achilles Bursitis.
Andry Nicholas [1658-1759]
Professor of Medicine at the University of Paris.
In 1741, at the age of 81, he published a famous book called “Orthopaedia: or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children. By such means that may easily be put into practice by parents themselves and all such as are employed in Educating Children”. In this book, Andry presents the word Orthopaedic, which derives from the Greek words “straight” and “child”.
Andry was interested in postural defects and this has been reflected by his famous illustration, which is known “The tree of Andry”. Andry believed that skeletal deformities were due to faults of posture and shortness of muscles. Some regard Andry as the Father of Orthopaedics, by many strongly disagree, believing that his work was un-scientific and that his only contribution was the use of the word Orthopaedics
Baker, William [1838-1896]
A surgeon at St Bartholomew’s hospital London, U.K.He described Baker’s cyst. A popliteal swelling which usually occurs in patients over 40 years of age.
Baer, William Stevenson [1872-1931]
Baltimore orthopaedic surgeon who suggested treatment of osteomylitis with maggots in 1931.He also devised a method [Baer method] of using chromatosed pigs bladder as an interpositional material in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis
Bankart, Blundell [1898-1951]
Bankart was the first registrar of the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital London, England and remained there and at the Middlesex Hospital all his life.
Barton John Rhea (1794-1871)
Barton was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. He studied at the Pennsylvania Hospital and later worked for Physick (the father of American Surgery) who in turn was a student of Hunter’s. It was said that Barton was ambidextrous and that once he had positioned himself for an operation, he did not move about. In 1826, he performed a subtrochanteric osteotomy of the femur for a severe flexion-adduction deformity of the hip in a 21 year old male sailor following a fracture. The operation took took 7 minutes . He encouraged early movement of the hip from three weeks post operatively and the patient ended up with a painless pseudoarthrosis at 4 months and was able to walk with a useful range of movement.
Barton is best known for his innovative corrective osteotomies for ankylosed joints. In 1834, Barton wired a fractured patella. In 1835, he described “Barton’s fracture” a wrist injury with subluxation in association with a marginal fracture of the articular surface of the radius.
Bennett, Edward [1837-1907]
Professor of surgery, Trinity College, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.He described Bennett’s fracture [fracture-dislocation of the first metacarpophalangeal joint].
Bennett is said to have introduced antisepsis to Dublin and to have performed many osteotomies for rickets. He became President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland
Bigelow, Henry Jacob [1818-1890]
Professor of Surgery at Harvard University from 1849 to 1882.
He described the importance of the Y shaped ligament at the front of the hip in a 1869 book on hip dislocation and was awarded by having his name attached to it.
Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins [1783-1862]
Famous surgeon at St. George’s Hospital, London and a friend of the Thomas family (that of Hugh Owen Thomas). He first published his book, “On the Diseases of Joints” in 1819, which proved to be a popular reference for many years. In 1832, he described the chronic bone abscess that has been named after him. The patient was a man of 24 who had recurring symptoms in the lower extremity of his right tibia. On examination, Brodie found a pus filled cavity, for which he believed that amputation could be avoided by trephination of that cavity. He recognised the association of arthritis with gonorrhoea and that all children’s hip disorders were associated with infection. He also described the Trendelenburg test for saphinofemoral incompetence in varicose veins.
He was chosen to be the first president of the general medical council…In 1843; he introduced the Fellowship examination of the Royal College of Surgeons in order to improve the education and standing of surgeons.
Brown-Sequard, Charles E [1818-1894]
Professor of Medicine at Harvard, Massachusetts, USA and Paris France.He described the Brown Sequard syndrome in spinal cord hemisection leading to distal loss of motor power on the side of the lesion and loss of pain on the contralateral side.
Browne, Sir Dennis [1892-1967]
He was an Austrian born in 1892 and qualified in Sidney before coming to England with the Australian Armed Forces in the First World War.He became a consultant surgeon at the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. He described the Denis Browne splint for clubfoot and the Dennis Browne operation for hypospadias. He had a colourful personality, was 6 feet, 6 inches tall and was a renowned inventor of a bicycle seat, an inflatable corset and a new grip for a tennis racket with which he played at Wimbledon.
Calve Jacques [1875-1954]
Jacques Calve of Berck, France, Arthur T. Legg of Boston, U.S.A. and George Perthes of Tubingen, Germany, are all said to have described Perthes’ disease in 1910. Hence this disease is sometimes referred to as Calve-Legg-Perthes disease. With the help of radiography, Calve realised that some cases of “tuberculous” hips in children were actually cases of coxa plana. He saw that these rare cases of hip irritability had X-ray evidence of coxa vara, hypertrophy of the femoral head, increased density, fragmentation and flattening of the epiphysis. He noted that the disease was of short clinical duration, had good recovery, did not relapse and was not associated with adenopathy or abscess. Calve also described vertebral osteochondritis with collapse, which he attributed to vascular changes subsequent to trauma (although we now know that eosinophil granuloma is the common cause).
Charnley Sir John [1911-1982]
In 1950, the great Sir John Charnley of Manchester wrote a classic book on the non-operative approach to fractures, “The Closed Treatment of Common Fractures”. Charnley is however renown as the effective innovator of the total hip replacement. Among other principal contributions was the development of a self-curing acrylic cement to anchor both the femoral replacement and the acetabular cup. Charnley was also interested in joint friction, replacing the Teflon with the use of high-density polyethylene.
Codman, Ernest A. [1869-1940]
Surgeon Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.He described Codmans triangle, the radiological appearance seen in osteosarcoma. He also described Codmans method of shoulder joint examination.
Colles, Abraham [1773-1843]
Irish surgeon born in Kilkenny, Ireland, of humble origins. Trained at Dublin and then went to Edinburgh for post-graduate studies obtaining the degree of MD in 1797.
On returning to Dublin he became a leading surgeon and professor of anatomy and surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons Ireland
He was elected president of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland at the young age of 29
He was the first to tie the subclavian artery, but is best known for his description of Colles’ fracture, in 1814 (the same year as Monteggia).
Charcot, Jean-Martin [1825-1893]
Charcot was from Salpetriere in Paris and is known worldwide as the first professor of Neurology. He wrote a thesis distinguishing gout, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Charcot also first described the arthropathy that bears his name. Charcot’s joints. He was first to write about amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, intermittent claudication, disseminated sclerosis, intermittent hepatic fever and herpes zoster
De Morgan, Campbell [1811-1876]
Surgeon Middlesex Hospital London, UK.He described de Morgans spots, raspberry –red tiny capillary angiomas, which do not show the sign of emptying [they do not blanche when compressed]. Thet are of no clinical significance.
Moore, Austin T [1890-1963]
In 1942 Moore performed the first metallic hip replacement. He had replaced, for the first time, the entire upper portion of the femur with a vitallium prosthesis a foot long. It had a round head, loops for muscle attachments, and a lower end, which slipped over the cut shaft and bolted to it. Over the years, the design of the prosthesis and the procedure improved. Consequently, there is one type of prosthesis called the Austin-Moore, which is still used today.
De Quervain, Fritz [1868-1940]
Professor of surgery, Berne, Switzerland. In 1895, de Quervain described de Quervain’s disease [or stenosing tenosynovitis], which affects the common tendon sheath of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis.
Like Kocher, he studied thyroid disease describing acute de Quervians thyroiditis and is responsible for the introduction of iodised table salt.
Doppler, Christian J [1803-1853]
Austrian physicist who inverted Doppler ultrasonic blood velocity detector
Dupuytren, Baron Guillaume [1777-835]
Born in the hamlet of Le Puytren near Limoges in central France.The son of a poor lawyer; he was kidnapped as a young boy by a rich lady him on account of his good looks. Rescued, he was taken to Paris and educated by a rich cavalry officer. As a medical student he endured poverty, allegedly reading books by the light of oil prepared from dissected cadavers. He became surgeon-in-chief at the Hotel Dieu at the age of 36 and worked extremely hard starting at dawn or earlier each day.
He became a fashionable and expensive physician to the wealthy aristocracy.
Regarded as a tyrant who reined as an absolute monarch for over 20 years with a harsh and over bearing manner to both patients and colleagueship became known as “the first of surgeons and the least of men” He was described as an unpleasant person to met, yet his work was delightful to read
He was an accurate clinical observer with a great interest in pathology. Dupuytren’s name is most associated with the contracture of palmar fascia. He also described Dupuytrens fracture sustained by failing onto the feet; the talus being driven upwards with the ligaments supporting it producing inferior tibiotalar diastasis. He wrote on many other subjects, including congenital dislocation of the hip, the nature of callus formation, subungal exostosis and the Trendelenburg sign.
He was the first surgeon to excise the lower jaw in 1812 and the first to treat torticollis by subcutaneous section of the sternoclidomastoid in a 12-year-old girl in 1822.
Esmarch, Fredrich Von [1823-1908]
German military surgeon of Kiel.Wrote treatises on first aid treatment and in 1861 organised a scheme for the proper siting of field hospitals and bandaging stations in relation to the battle line. Esmarch’s bandage or tourniquet, a long rubber strip to produce a bloodless limb by compression was introduced in 1873.
Erb, Wilhelm Heinrich [1840-1921]
The son of a woodsman in the black forest
Ewing, James [1866-1943]
Professor of Oncology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, USA.He described Ewing’s sarcoma of the long bones in males.
Galeazzi, Riccardo [1866-1952]
Director of the Milan Istituto dei Rachitici for 35 years building up the unit into a famed European centre of excellence. Well known for his enormous experience with congenital dislocation of the hip and for his work with structural scoliosis.
In 1934,he complemented the description by another Milanese, Monteggia, of his eponymous forearm fracture by reporting on ulnar shaft fractures accompanied by disruption of the inferior radio-ulnar joint, analogous to Montegia’s fracture but much more common.
Halstred, William Stewart [1852-1922]
Surgeon, John Hopkins Hospital, USA.Introduced the use of rubber gloves for the first time [used initially for protection of his theatre nurse, Caroline Hampton, who had contact rash with antiseptics; Halsted later married her]
He taught the modern doctrine that surgical safety lies in the avoidance of blood loss, meticulous care and gentle handling of tissues.
He was the pioneer of radical mastectomy and Halsteds repair of hernia [closure of external oblique posterior to the cord]. He invented the Halsteds needle holder and fine mosquito artery forceps.
He also discovered the local anaesthetic properties of cocaine and was the first surgeon to use regional anaesthetic. Unfortunately he became addicted to narcotic drugs up until he died.
Harrison, Edwin [1779-1849]
Physician, St Marylebone Infirmary, London, UK.He described Harrison’s sulcus or groove at the costochondral junction in the rachitic chest.
Heberden, William [1710-1801]
Heberden was born in London were he also built up a busy practice. He is known for initiating the Medical Transactions in 1766, but even more so for his description of Heberden’s nodes.
Henry, Arnold [1794-1962]
He entered Trinity College, Dublin and graduated M.B., B.Ch. in 1911.He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland in 1914.In the early part of the 1914-1918 war he went to Serbia as a surgeon with the Serbian army. His wife, who was also a surgeon, accompanied him and acted as his assistant. When the country was over-run by the German Army in 1916 he managed to escape to England.The Serbian government later awarded him the Order of St.Sava for his distinguished services in the field. He later joined the French Army where he served as a surgeon from 1917-1919.He was honoured by the French government and made a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. On his return from war service he went back to Dublin where he established himself as a highly respected surgeon. When he resigned to go to Cairo as Professor of Surgery in 1925 it was considered a great loss to Dublin.He wrote his book “Henry’s Extensile Exposure” on operative approaches for which he became very famous. He then worked at Hammersmith Hospital London before returning to Dublin, as Professor of Anatomy.He is also famous for his master knot seen during clubfoot surgery.
Hey, William [1736-1819]
William Hey was born in Pudsey near Leeds. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a surgeon and apothecary and nearly died of an overdose of opium whilst studying its effects. He was the founder of Surgery at Leeds and trained at St. George’s Hospital. Hey wrote a book on Surgery, which contained several chapters on Orthopaedics. Subacute Osteomyelitis of the tibia was described and he advocated deroofing of the lesion. In 1773, Hey banged his knee getting out of the bath, and many attribute his subsequent interest in the knee to this. He coned the phrase “internal derangement of the knee”, and described meniscal injuries. Hey described loose bodies and introduced tarso-metatarsal amputation.
Homans, John [1877-1954]
Professor of Clinical Surgery, Harvrd University, Boston, USAHe described Homans sign [passive dorsiflexion of the foot causes calf pain in deep venous thrombosis].
Horner, Johann F. [1831-1886]
Professor of Opthalmology, Zurich, Switzerland.He described Horner’s Syndrome [myosis, ptosis, enophthalmus and anhidrosis] in injury of the cervical sympathetic chain
Hunter, John [1728-1793]
Hunter worked on a Lowland farm until he was 20 years of age. Until he was 32, he was a pupil and house surgeon at St. George’s Hospital in London and also worked in his brother’s dissecting room in Covent Garden. In the Seven Years’ War, he served as a military surgeon. He set up a research centre in London’s Golden Square and taught and lectured at Leicester Square until angina eventually lead to his death. Hunter’s contribution was immense and even stemmed through the pupils he taught (e.g. Abernethy, Chessher, Jenner and Philip Syng Physick). Hunter himself was a pupil of Percival Pott. Although he received little formal education (unlike his brother William, an obstetrician in London) Hunter put the practice of surgery on a scientific foundation and laid the framework for the twentieth century developments. His saying “Don’t Think, try the experiment” has inspired generations of modern surgeons. Much of Hunter’s knowledge may be attributed to his military experience and his experiments on animals.
Jones Sir Robert [1855-1933]
Probably the most important figure at the turn of the century. Indeed many would argue that he was the greatest orthopaedic surgeon that the world had ever seen. It was said that when Jones operated, “Time stood still”. Jones was a nephew of the great Hugh Owen Thomas and became one of his apprentices in Liverpool. In 1896, Jones published the first report of the clinical use of an X-ray to locate a bullet in a wrist. He founded several associations and Orthopaedic hospitals. Jones wrote several important books such as “Injuries of Joints” in 1915 and “Notes on Military Orthopaedics” in 1917. His textbook “Orthopaedic Surgery” is said to be the first to have dealt systematically with the diagnosis and treatment of fresh fractures. In World War I, Jones headed the orthopaedic section of the British Forces. Jones was an advocate of tendon transplantation, bone grafting, and other conservative, restorative procedures
An Austrian radiologist who graduate from the University of Vienna.He developed the use of X-rays diagnostically and therapeutically with a particular interest in bone.He wrote about characteristic radiological changes seen in the lunate bone which he considered to be traumatic in origin. In 1910 he feel off his horse and fractured his skull,following which he became very quite,withdrawen and a severely depressed man.
Kirshner Martin [1879-1942]
Martin Kirschner was from Greifswald, Germany and was also known for his methods of fixation, in particular for the Kirschner or K-wire. He also performed the first successful pulmonary embolectomy
Kocher, Theodor [1841-1917]
Kocher was born in Berne and studied in Berlin, London, Paris and Vienna. In 1872, he became Professor of Clinical Surgery, University of Berne, Switzerland. Kocher had a great interest in anatomy and in 1870 he described his eponymous method of reducing a dislocated shoulder.
A pupil of Langenbeck and Billroth he developed the surgical technique of thyroidectomy and described Kochers collar incision and subcostal incision for biliary operation. In 1878 he drained a gall bladder at operation for the first time. His main interest was in thyroid disease performing over 2000 thyroidectomies He also decribed Kocher’s maneuvre in mobilisation of the second part of the duodenum. He also developed several surgical instruments
He received the Nobel Prize in 1909[the first time it was awarded to a surgeon].
Kuntsher, Gerhard [1900-1972]
Gerhard Kuntscher served in the German army during the Second World War and published his revolutionary procedure in the opening months of the war. His work was concerned with the intramedullary nailing of fractures of the shafts of long bones and his name is associated with the nail, the Kuntsher was prejudiced academically. He was never offered a chair.
Lane, Sir William Arbuthnot [1856-1938]
Lane was a Scot from Inverness who trained and later worked at Guy’s Hospital in London. Lane is known for his attempts at improving alignment of fractures by using internal fixation. He started off using silver wire, then he used steel screws and this was followed by the use of plates and screws. Lane was said to have been eccentric, regarding humans as machines and performed total colectomies as a cure for “auto-intoxication”. He also initiated the programmes of health education that are present today. Lane wrote columns in the newspapers, held public lectures and improved the distribution of fruit and vegetables.
Legg, Arthur T. [1874-1939]
Arthur T. Legg (1874-1939) of Boston, U.S.A. described Perthes’ disease in 1910. Legg had wide interests, but is best known for the eight papers that he published on coxa plana.
Little William John [1810-1894]
Little was educated at the Jesuit seminary at St. Omer. He himself had a paralytic clubfoot. The treatment in London was amputation, however, he found a cure in Germany by tenotomy. Little was a founder of the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital. He published a detail report, in 1862, of the then ill-understood group of deformed and partly retarded children and young adults. This type of spastic paralysis with paraplegia of the lower limbs was then called Little’s disease for many years.
Lister Joseph [1827-1912]
Professor of Surgery, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Kings College Hospital, London, UK.
Lister is known as the leader of modern aseptic surgery, applying the discoveries of Pasteur to surgery. He developed antiseptics that reduced postoperative wound infection .He first applied carbolic acid to a compound fracture in 1865. It was soon clear that his practices had a dramatic effect in reducing the incidence of abscesses, pyaemia, hospital gangrene, erysipelas and amputation mortality. Lister was made a baronet in 1883, and later in his life was thought to have trialed the application of the Penicillium mould directly to wounds.
Studied medicine in Bonn,Berlin and Tuingen.He worked in a mental hospital in Siegburg and then served in the Franco-Prussian war of 1871.When he was appointed Professor of Surgery at Strasbourg in 1894 he was the youngest member of the medical faculty.At the end of the First World War,he was kicked out by the French and put unde house arrest before moving to Gottingen.His discription of a wrist deformity was not original and was little more than that previously described by both Dupuytren and Smith.He was apparently an unforgiving individual and said every clinical lession must be prepared and conducted in such a way that every student who contemplates missing the class must feel that he would miss something important
Marie, Pierre [1853-1940]
Marie was born in Paris, he worked for Charcot and eventually succeeded him as Professor of Neurology at Salpetriere. Marie described peroneal muscular trophy (Charot-Marie-Tooth disease). He was the first to associate acromegaly with a pituitary tumour in 1886. In 1980, he described hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy. In 1898, he gave the first account of cranio-cleidal dystosis and noted the partial aplasia of the clavicles, the increased skull diameter, the disordered dentition and the failure of ossification at the fontanelles. Also in 1898, he published a classic paper on ankylosing spondylitis, which he refereed to as “spondylosis rhizomelique”. Marie believed that poliomyelitis was infectious
Surgeon, Paris, France.He described Marjolins carcinomatous ulcer in burn scars.
Mathysen, Antonius [1805-1878]
Mathysen was a Dutch military surgeon who in 1851 invented the plaster of Paris (POP) bandage that was to become so important to orthopaedic practice. To this day, a POP cast is the mainstay of fracture immobilisation
Monteggia, Giovanni B. [1762-1815]
Monteggia was born at Lake Maggiore and was a Milanese pathologist who acquired syphilis by cutting himself at autopsy. He became a surgeon and Professor of Surgery at Milan, Italy.
He is particularly remembered for his description in 1814 of the fracture that bears his name, Monteggia’s fracture [fracture of the ulna with dislocation of the upper radioulnar joint].
McMurray, Thomas Porter [1888-1949]
In the chain of great surgeons that followed Hugh Owen Thomas, came Thomas Porter McMurray who worked for Robert Jones. McMurray was born in Belfast, but worked in Liverpool. His operative dexterity was renown, for he could remove an entire meniscus in five minutes and disarticulate a hip in ten minutes! In 1928, McMurray published a paper on internal derangements of the knee. Here he introduced his sign for a torn meniscus, McMurray’s sign. An operation was also named after him as McMurray was the first to perform a displacement osteotomy for un-united fractures of the femoral neck and arthrosis of the hip.
Ollier, Louis Xavier Edouard Leopold [1830-1900]
Ollier was born in Vans in Ardeche and studied at Lyons and ontpellier. Ollier, like Macewen, performed pioneering bone grafts. Although both were successful, their methods and the theory behind them were in fierce opposition. In 1877, Ollier suggested that bone growth might be inhibited in order to correct certain deformities by resecting the epiphyeal plate. In 1899, Ollier first described dyschondroplasia or “Ollier’s Disease”. Ollier researched bone growth to an enormous extent and believed that it might be possible one day to treat patients by stimulating their cartilage to ossify.
Paget, Sir James [1814-1899]
He was born in Great Yarmouth, England, the son of a brewer and ship owner. After an apprenticeship to a local surgeon he went to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London as a student, where he remained for the rest of his career. It was in 1877 that Paget gave the first description of what he called “osteitis deformans”, but what is now commonly called Paget’s disease. He noted the increased incidence of osteosarcoma, the increasing head size and deformities. Paget was also a remarkable lecturer with a great interest in bone pathology. His name is also associated with Paget’s disease of the penis and Paget’s disease of the nipple.
He became curator of the Anatomy Museum in the Royal College of Surgeons of England and then without any previous surgical posts, was elected Professor of Surgery at the Royal Colleage of Surgeons and a Consultant Surgeon.
He had a huge private practice and is said to have earned 10,000 pounds a year from it.
He almost died from sepsis following a cut sustained accidentally when he carried out a post-mortem.
Pancoast, Henry K [1875-1939]
Professor of Roentgenology, University of Pennylvania, Philadelphia, USA.He described Pancoasts syndrome due to apical pulmonary cancer, swollen congested face due to pressure on the superior vena cava, Horners syndrome [pressure on the sympathetic chain] and shooting pains down the arm [pressure on the brachial plexus]. The first rib is usually eroded on Chest radiograph
Pare, Ambroise [1510-1590]
He was born in France in 1510,the son of a valet and barber. Regarded as the most famous surgical figure of the l6th century and “the father of French Surgery”. In 1532 he became an apprentice to a Parisian barber-surgeon, then worked for four years at Hotel Dieu in Paris. In 1541, he became a master barber-surgeon and did some work as an army surgeon. In 1564, he published a monumental work on Surgery, the “Dix Livres de la Chirurgie”. The first part contained Anatomy and Physiology and the second, Surgery. In this, many surgical techniques were described, one of the most significant being the use of ligature for large vessels in amputations. He also used a tourniquet in his amputations, to hold the muscles retracted with the skin, prohibit the flux of blood and to dull the senses. He designed a wide variety of forceps, instruments and braces of all kinds. With the help of armourers, he made a variety of artificial limbs from iron. The majority were cosmetic, although Pare did design a scoliosis corset and a clubfoot boot.
He developed an ointment for the treatment of gunshot wounds as a non-operative alternative to cauterisation with boiling oil. He was a surgeon to four French Kings.He was one of the few Huguenots spared at the massacre of St.Bartholomew.
In 1561,he sustained a compound fracture of his own tibia. He told his surgeon to put his foot in a straight line and if the wound wasn’t big enough to increase it so as to reduce the fracture and take out any fragments of blood and expressed blood
Perthes, George [1869-1927]
Professor of Surgery, Tubingen Germany.He described Perthes disease. He also described Perthes test [walking with a tourniquet placed below the saphenous opening to diagnose deep venous thrombosis in cases of pain and venous congestion of the leg.
Peyronie, Francois de La [1678-1747]
Surgeon to Louis XV and founder of the Royal Academy of Surgery, Paris, and France.Mainly due to him, Paris became a great surgical centre in the eighteenth century. He described Peyronies disease of the penis [a localised painless induration of one or both corpora cavernosa leading to lateral curvature of the erect penis]
Pott, Percival [1714-1788]
Surgeon, St Bartholomews Hospital London from were he received the diploma of the Barber-Surgeons’, Company in 1763. He is best known for the ankle fracture that bears his name “Pott’s fracture”. In 1756, he received a fracture of his own. It was an oblique compound fracture of the lower third of the tibia, which was acquired after falling from his horse. He refused to be moved until he had purchased a door to be carried on, as he believed that the jolting of a carriage would have exacerbated the injury. Immediate amputation was usually conducted on such injuries, but at the last moment amputation was stopped and the limb was saved. Pott’s most famous work is on the paraplegia of spinal tuberculosis. He also described Potts Puffy Tumour, a localised oedema over osteomylitis of the skull.
Raynauld, Maurice [1834-1881]
Physician, Hospital Lariboisiere, Paris, France.He described Raynauld’s disease in females in which arterial spasm occurs in cold weather with colour changes from white to blue to red.
Roentgen, Wilhelm C .Von [1845-1923]
Although Rontgen was a professor of Physics at Wurzburg, his discovery of X-rays (Rontgen rays) and their use has provided an enormous contribution to Orthopaedics and is still of great value to Orthopaedic practice. The first radiography that Rontgen took was of his wife’s hand on the 22nd of December 1895. This was allegedly her Christmas present. Rontgen received the Nobel Prize for his discovery in 1901.
He became Professor of Pathology in Dresden.He had a photographic memory and is best known for his work on bone.He attracted students from all over the world and always examined the spine at autopsy ..He died of septicaemia after scratching his finger on a band saw whilst ctting a specimen.He described intra-vertebral disc protrusions
Smith-Petersen, Marius [1886-1953]
He was born in Grimstead, Norway but left for the United States when he was 17 and graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1914.He joined the orthopaedic teaching staff in Harvard in 1920 and was Clinical Professor and Chief of the Orthopaedic Service at the Massachusetts General Hospital until 1946.As a resident he devised his own anterior approach to the hip joint to reduce blood loss. He pioneered cup arthroplasty, osteotomy of the spine for ankylosing spondylitis and a new device to fix femoral neck fractures. He never retired.
Smith, Robert William [1807-1873]
Smith was born in Dublin; he studied and worked there. He became Professor of Surgery at Trinity College in Dublin. Smith founded the Dublin Pathological Society with Colles, Graves, Corrigan and Stokes. In 1847, Smith wrote a classic book called “A Treatise on Fractures in the Vicinity of Joints, and on certain forms of Accidents and Congenital Dislocations.” Here he describes the eponymous “Smith’s fracture”, and Madelung’s deformity before Madelung described it. In 1849, he published “A Treatise on the Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroma”. This book was said to be so large that it was larger than an ordinary sized dinning-room table when opened up. Smith wrote on neurofibromatosis in great detail, much before von Recklinghausen did.
He was born in Hollway ,London,the son of a Surveyor of Customs.Aftertaking a First in Classics at Cambridge he trained at Guys Hospital before going onto Great Ormond Street.He was one of Britains first full time paediatricians.He is most famous piece of work resulted in 1896 in a Cambridge MD for a thesis entitled “A special form of joint disease meet in children”.
He was an extremely good looking bachelor who lived with his mother until she died,taking her to church every unday.He was one of the most popularpaediatricians in London so that almost every sick child of well to do parents had seen him at one time or another.
Struthers, Sir John [1823-1899]
Professor of Anatomy in Aberdeen from 1863-1889.Fibrous band of the supratrochlear spur of the humerus
Sydneham, Thomas [1624-1689]
Sydneham is likened to Hippocrates because his writings cover a large field and are characterised by good observation. Likewise, he is also known as “the father of English medicine”. He was born at Winford Eagle, and studied at Oxford and Montpellier. He himself suffered from gout and wrote an excellent description of the disease, detailing the attack, the changes in urine and the link with renal stones. He described acute rheumatism, chorea, and the articular manifestations of scurvy and dysentery
Syme, James [1799-1870]
Syme was born in Edinburgh. As a student at Edinburgh University he found a way of dissolving rubber. Syme opened a school of Anatomy and later opened a very successful private clinic. In 1833, he became Professor of Surgery in Edinburgh and held that position until his death, (he had actually made an agreement with his predecessor to pay him a pension if he resigned). Syme is known for introducing conservative alternatives to the major amputations that were carried out at the time. In 1831, he released a booklet, which detailed cases where joint excision could be used instead of amputation for grossly diseased joint, as in tuberculosis, and injured joints. In 1842, Syme described an amputation at the ankle. This amputation bears his name, as it replaced a portion of below knee amputations, which were ordinary practice at that time.
Thomas, Hugh Owen [1834-1891]
Hugh Owen Thomas is regarded as “the father of British Orthopaedics”. He was the eldest of five sons born to a family of well-known bonesetter at that time. All studied Medicine.Thomas was a thin and nervous child who was somewhat delicate. His peculiar temperament in adulthood led many to ignore him and his immense contributions to Orthopaedic Surgery during his lifetime. Hugh Owen Thomas could not even work with his father and never held a hospital appointment. He treated all his patients at his home. His practice was so busy that he started his rounds at five or six in the morning and never left his home for other than professional purposes. Thomas would designate Sunday as his “free day” and hundreds of patients from the country would surround his house in order to be treated. The people of Liverpool knew Thomas as a short and quick man. A man who always wore a black coat buttoned up to the neck and a sailors cap pulled over a damaged eye.A cigarette was seen constantly in his mouth.
He believed in enforced,prolonged and uninterrupted rest for the treatment of tuberculous joints.Thomas developed a great number of splints in order to achieve this.His long splint for the knee was adapted for treatment of femoral fractures during the First World War and drastically reduced the mortality rate of open fractures from 60% to 25%.He was the first to demonstrate concealed flexion of the hip joint and a way of unmasking this by performing the Thomas Test”
Tinel, Jules [1879-1952]
Jules Tinel, of Rouen and Paris, was a neurologist in the First World War and first described “Tinel’s sign” in 1917. This related to nerve injuries, and on percussion of the nerve below the site of nerve injury, “formication” was elicited if nerve fibres were degenerating. If this was absent, there was a bad prognosis.
Trendelenburg, Fredrich [1844-1924]
Trendelenburg was born in Berlin where his father was a professor of philosophy. His mother was a teather and he was educated at home by his parents. He did his national service as a military surgeon before returning to Berlin where he trained under Langenbeck.He spent some time as a surgeon in Berlin before being appointed at Professor at Rostock in Germany.He later succeeded to the chairs of surgery in Bonn and Leipzig.
In 1895 he described observations on the gait of congenitally dislocated hip patients. Later he went on to describe the pelvic inclination on single leg weight bearing, which became known as the Trendeleburg sign. He also described Trendeleburg’s position [head down and legs up], Trendelenburgs test [for saphenofemoral imcompetence], Trendelenburgs operation [midthigh high ligation of the great saphenous vein and the Trendelenburg gait which occurs in bilateral congenital dislocation of the hips
Venel, Jean-Andre [1740-1791]
Jean-Andre Venel was a Genevese physician who studied dissection at Montpellier at the age of 39, and in 1780, established the first orthopaedic institute in the world at Orbe, in Canton Waadt. This was the first true hospital that dealt specifically with the treatment for crippled children’s skeletal deformities. Venel recorded and published all his methods and for this was known as the first true orthopaedist. He is also regarded as the father of orthopaedics, as his institute acted as a model for hospitals throughout Europe. Venel stressed the importance of sunlight and made various braces and appliances at the workshops within the institute.
Virchow, Rudolf [1821-1902]
German physiologist and anatomist of Wurzburg and Berlin.The founder of the science of cellular pathology.
He designed the sewage system of Berlin’organised the Prussian ambulance corps in 1870 and served as a member of the German Reichstag.
He founded Virchow’s archives [medical journal] in 1847.Well known for Virchow’s triad of thrombosis [endothelial injury, viscosity change and platelet aggregation] and for Virchow’s supraclavicular lymph nodes, enlargement of which produces Troisiers sign in advanced gastric carcinoma
Volkmann, Richard Von [1830-1889]
Born in Leipzig ,the son of a German Professor of Physiology at Halle.He became Professor of Surgery at Halle in 1867,was a Consulting surgeon in the Franco Prussian war and one of Lister’s major champions.He was mainly interested in the surgery of bones and joints, but also claimed to be the first surgeon to excise the rectum for cancer in 1878. In 1881, Volkmann published his famous paper on ischaemic contractures following brachial artery trauma in supracondylar fractures.He described the claw hand that resulted from muscle death and fibrosis
It is interesting to note that Volkmann wrote popular poems and fairy stories for his children during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. and also founded a surgical journal.
Von Recklinghausen, Friedrich D. [1833-1910]
Professor of Pathology, Stasburg, Germany.He was the first to point to the blood-borne skeletal metastases in cancer. He described the diffuse neurofiromatosis with cutaneous pigmentation and multiple tumours [Von Reckinghausens disease]. He also described bone cyst formation in hyperthyroidism.
Wallace, Alexander B [1906-1974]
Plastic surgeon, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, and Scotland.He introduced the Rule of Nines in burns.
Willis, Thomas [1621-1675]
Physician, Oxford, UK. He described the circle of Willis at the base of the brain, first noticed the sweet taste of diabetic urine and described myasthenia gravis.